**Aether and ethereal waves**

Sukhоrukov G.I.,

Sukhоrukov R.G.

The Bratsk State University

Makarenko str. 40, Bratsk city, Russia

E-mail: nil_mu@brstu.ru

Modern physics began at the start of the 20th century. After unsuccessful attempts to explain experiments, scientist came to the conclusion that at extremevelocities, the laws of classical physics did not apply. Thus beganan intnsive exploration of new ways of understanding natural phenomena. The Approached crisis is in physicist to manage to overcome price of the greater victims. The only way out was to ignore some postulates – so we had to abandone Newton’s concept of space and time, and clearly demonstrative physical models as well as the principle of common sense undiscrepancy. Physics became the exclusive realm of the mathematicians with physical processes described through abstract theories that are based on erroneous postulates and hypotheses.this applies in all respects to electromagnetic wave theory.

In excluding the privileged reference system in relativistic theory, Einstein abandoned the aether. However such approach to this problem is to be a failure, because it is not possible to abandon really existing ambience. Notwithstanding, the bounless expanse of the universe is filled with a world ambience – the aether. The whole information on surrounding us world give us ethereal waves (light, x-ray, radiowaves and so on). The determination of the wave nature of these radiations precludes any doubts about the validity of existence of the aether. The wave process involves the transportation of energy, whichis impossible without a material carrier. The etherial waves come to us both from the most distant areas of the universe and from the derths of atoms and their nuclei. Consequently, the aether permeates both the macro- and microcosm.

We have developed electron-protonic model of the aether, which is inconsistent with its character. Most scientist ascribe a very small density to the aether in order to explain why resistance to a moving body is not apparent. Our studies have shown that the aether has a very high density commensurable with the density of fluids and rigid bodies exceeding gases by hundreds of times. In oeder to avoid raradox, we posit that the aether, having a high density, is instaneosly discharged substance. This greatly simplifies the calculations [1].

According to our model the structure of the aether is like the structure of the universe. Both the universe and the aether are built on the same principle. As in the universe (in macrocosm), so in the aether (in microcosm) the distances between the bodies exceed their sizes by million times. In the aether the probability of electron collisions with protons is so small, as the probability of the collision of celestial bodies. In the unit of the volume of the aether the amountof protons is equal to the amount of electrons. That is why the aether is a neutral ambience – dielectric. Maksvell also considered that aether consists of discharged particles, but he did not call what these particleswere themselves.

Dalamber has proved theoretically that ideal incondensable liquid does not resist the body moving at the constant constant velocity rectilineally or on circumference. This law is exactly executed under orbital motion of celestial bodies and when electron is moving in atom. The ability of the aether not to resist the moving bodies, is conditioned by its structure. The ambience does not offer resistance to the motion of charged bodies only in that case if it consists of discharged particles. So, for instance if protons moves in the aether the counter positive particles will repulse it, while negative ones will attract with the same power.The power of repulsion will be compensated by the power of the attraction. Since, any body consists of electron and protons, the aether also does not offer resistance to their motion at constant velocity.

The motion of charged bodies influences the efficiency of their interaction. When the charged bodies are not far from each other the motion intensifies the efficiency of their interaction but when they are at the far distance, on the contrary, the motion weakens their efficiency. However the effect of the motion does not influence the ability of the aether not to prevent the bodies from moving at the constant velocity. The reinforcement or weakening of the interaction between of the same charges of the moving bodies and the aether is compensated by reinforcement or weakening of the interaction between different charges.

If the aether consisted of neutral particles, its properties would not be proved by the experiments. Such aether would not resist bodies moving at the constant velocity. The counter particles of the aether would send a greater impulse to the body than the passing ones and as a result the velocity of the moving body in reference to the aether would continuously decrease. In some period of time the movionof the body would stop.

The principle of Dalamber is not executed if the motion of bodies is accelerated. The power of itertia appeared influences all the particles of the moving body and the aether like the power of gravity. Being in a moving with acceleration vehicle we can judge about the value of this power. The large value of power, with which the aether influence us, proves its high density.

The described model of the aether supposes the existenceof more fine ambience, through which electric and gravitational interactions are sent. Let us call this ambience a subether. Light and x-ray waves can not spread in this ambience. As acoustic waves can spread in hard, fluid and gaseous substances, but can not spread in airwaves, so ethereal waves can spread in electro-protonic aether, but can not spread in subether. Subether is an ambience, through which the power interaction from one charged bodies to others are sentat the speed of light and in which the radiations with wavelength less 10-11 m can spread. Thre are not Any waves of de Broyle in nature. There are aether and subaether waves.

Electron-protonic aether should be considered incondensable, since the significant distances between its particle causes big changes of the electric field voltage. At the same time there are not any obstacles to the shift deformation. This can explain that fact that light waves are transverse. In view of incompressibilityof the aether the excitation of longitudal wavesin it is impossible.

The Planks and Einstein have considered that wave radiation is emitted by the atom discretely and spreads in space in the form of small bundle of energy. These bundles of energy wasd name the quantum of the light or photon. Having abandoned the aether, Einstein had to consider the photons to be a particle, possessing wave properties. Due to this reason in experiments of Davisson and Germer the diffraction of electronic waves had to be explained with the helpof the wave properties of electrons themselves. The inconsistent philosophical notion was incorporated in physics - corpuscular-wave dualism.

Corpuscular-wave dualism has excluded the differences between particle and the waves. Any object of the microcosm (the electron, photon, neutron and so on) can behave itself either as a particle, or as a wave. So one more step was made aside from the reality . In the reality photon presents itself a spiral wave, spreading in ambience of the aether at the speed of light. While moving photon consecutively influences all new and new amounts of the ambience, but does not carry away the ambience itself. The particle, unlike the wave, while moving carries away all substances, concluded in its volume. The particle, in no case can become the wave.

According to Borit is necessary to waste the energy to transform an electrone in atom from the stationary condition K1 into the stationary condition K2

hνф = Е1-Е2, (1)

where h - a constant Plank, νф - a frequency of the photon, Е1, Е2 - accordingly an energy of the electron in the first and second stationary condition.

It is possible to convert the formula of Bor as follows

(2)

where - a wavelength, C - a velocity of the light, e - a charge of the electron, rн - Borovskiy radius, =1+m/м, m - a mass of the electron, M – weight of atom, z1, z2 - an efficient charge numbers of the nucleus, the electron being in the first and thesecond stationary conditions. The letter with strokes and without strokes are marked the values, regarding and disregarding the effect of the motion. The value

R=e2С·10-7/2hrн=1,097314784×107 m-1 – the constant of Ridberg, having one and the same value among all atom. So this formula (2) will take the following form

(3)

If it is known known the lengths of the waves, radiated by the atom when the electron turning from the infinity to the orbits of the first and the second stationary condition, it is possible to write the formula (3) in such a type

thence we find:

νф = νф2 - νф1,

where the letters ν and T with index "ф" is marked frequencies and periods of the radiated waves (the photons).

To present the processes,
occurring in atom during the radiation of the photon, we can express the values,
referred to photon, through values, referred to atom. Having put in the formula
(2) of the value E_{1} and E_{2}, expressed through orbital
velocities of electrons in atom, we have

(4)

but if instead of z1', z2' present their values expressed through radiuses of the circular orbits we shall get the following expression:

It is required to waste energy to transfere the electron from circular orbit into the infinity

where νа - the frequency of the rotation of the electron around the nucleus. The same picture can be observed when removing the electron from the elliptical orbit

where Va/, Vn/ – velocities of the electron in the apocenter and pericenter, l/ – the length of the big axis of the ellipse. Correlations were used at the last formula [1]

.

Thereby, for circular and for elliptical orbits the following expressions are acceptable:

The Spiral wave (the photon) is described by the formula of a flat wave, since the variable value ц (the angular offset of the aether) depends only on the time t and the coordinates x in the direction the wave spreading. Wave equation is of the form

The answer to this equation is a correlation

where 2π is an angular amplitude of the spiral wave, ω - an angular frequency. Thereby, when transfering the electron in atom from the upper orbit to the lower one only one photon is radiated. This confirms the above mentioned formulae and calculations on these formulae and experiment data [2].

The scientific results,
we have, greatly increase the possibility of the basic researches of the
processes of the wave radiation of atoms and spreading of the waves in the
aether. So, for instance, it is possible approximately to measure the sizes of
the photon. The length of the photon, radiated by the atom of hydrogen when
transfering the electron from the second orbit to the first one is equal to a
wavelength λ^{’}=1215.6683·10-10m.
Formula (4) can be written as follows

As it is shown in the work [1], the mass of the airwaves mф, agitated by the photon is equl to the mass of the electron. In regard to this it is possible to find the amplitude velocity of the spiral wave

Putting the value in the formula V1’=2.1865006×106 m s-1 and V2’=1.0932285×106 m s-1 [1], we find Vф=1,8940932×106 m s-1. Energy of the photon is

The Period of the radiated wave (photon) is

Thence we find

Putting the known values
in the formula , we get rф=1,2224071×10-10
m.
So the spiral wave (the photon) has a length
λ^{’}=1215,6683×10-10
m and
diameter 2rф=2,444481429×10-10
m.
Ethereal waves are transverse. Knowing the density of the aether
с=1080
kg/m3 [1],
it is possible to define its module of the shift

For comparison we shall bring importance of the module of the shift of ferric G=0.9×105 MPa [3]. The aether consists of electron and proton. The mass of the proton is 1836 times greater than the mass of the electron. Due to its high inertia, the protons practically do not take part in transmission of the wave energy. The main carriers of the energy in aether are electrons.

Our theory allows to solve the paradox of Olibers. The German astronomer Olibers in 1826 has shown that if the amount of stars in the universe is infinitely the night sky must be very bright but not dark as we actually see it. The reason for this paradox is unstrict analysis of this phenomena. Any star radiates the limited amount of photons, which are scattered in different sides in rectilinear path. The farther from the watcher a star is, the less photons fall into the lens of the telescope. We do not see the distant stars, since the radiated by them photons do not fall into our instruments. To concentrate on the focus of the telescope lens a greater amount of photons, it is necessary to enlarge its diameter and to enlarge the time of the exposition while taking pictures. This will let us see more distant stars. If we manage to count the amount of the stars Q0 and Qx accordingly in the volume of the universe 4/3 рR03 and 4/3рRx3, where R0 - a distance till the most distant stars in the explored part of the universe then according to the formula

it will be possible to define a new value of the radius of the sphere, which is available to the watcher after the increase of the diameter of the lens and the time of exposition.

The Literature

1. Sukhorukov I., Sukhorukov V. I., Sukhorukov E.G., Sukhorukov R. Real physical world without paradoksov. - a Publishers of the Fraternal technical university, 2001.

2. R. V. Floor. The Optics and atomic physics - M.: "Science", 1966.

3. V. S. Zolotorevskiy. The Mechanical characteristic metal - M.: "Metallurgy", 1983.

The Last renovation 08.10.2006

©
Site is created Kuimov O.S. at support ZAO "Hydrargium"

Используются технологии **uCoz**