Theoretical bases of some methods of experimental physics.

 

Physics as the science, having arisen during an epoch of antiquity, has passed a long and difficult way of development. In process of accumulation of a skilled material of scientists were convinced that the physical world represents an objective reality that it is used to know and can be described theoretically. It installed in them belief in an opportunity to understand laws which operate complex physical processes and the phenomena. The long period of accumulation of the scientific information has shown, that the boundless variety of the physical phenomena submits rather to a small number of fundamental laws. Actions of laws do not depend on will of people. Laws of the nature cannot be thought up, cancelled or destroyed. They can be opened, studied and effectively to use at the decision of the most complicated science- technical problems.

        Successful development of modern physics is substantially caused by activity of human reason. The same laws can be explained on the basis of different theoretical concepts. Formulations of laws as a rule only rather truly reflect the validity. They answer a level of knowledge and a mentality of the scientists generalizing the experimental facts. Fundamental experimental researches very complex and expensive. For their successful carrying out and correct interpretation of the received information theories adequately reflecting investigated processes and the phenomena are necessary. In the beginning of 20-th century there was no the theory precisely describing a structure of an ether and character of its interaction with firm, liquid and gaseous objects. Therefore at the analysis of key experiments of modern physics approximate calculations on the basis of which incorrect conclusions were done were spent.

        To exclude exclusive system of readout and to entitle to a life to a principle of a relativity of Einstein it was necessary to refuse an ether. However such approach to the decision of scientific problems is doomed to failure. It is possible to refuse the belief but to liquidate the strong-willed by really existing environment it is impossible. Actually contrary of Einstein immense open spaces of the Universe are filled by the world environment - an ether. The information on the world surrounding us radio waves (light, x-ray, a radio wave, etc.). The establishment of the wave nature of light and other radiations excludes any doubts about reliability of existence of an ether. Without environment the concept of a wave loses sense. Wave process is accompanied by carry of energy, and it without the material carrier - an ether - cannot be transferred. Radio waves come to us both from the farthest areas of the Universe, and from depths of atoms and nuclear kernels. Hence all space macro- and a microcosm is filled by an ether.

         When the fact of existence of an ether became obvious, scientists have directed the efforts to studying of its properties. In 1851 Phiso has lead experiment with the purpose of an establishment of character of interaction of an ether with moving objects. Results of experiment have shown, that moving water carries away an ether partially. The factor of carrying away Г for water is equal 0,46, that will well be coordinated with formula of Frenel

                                                              (1)

 

Where n - a parameter of refraction. At water n=1,333 [19] and, hence, α =0,437.

           In view of good coordination of theoretical and experimental values Г for water of scientists have come to conclusion that the degree of carrying away an ether objects depends only on their parameter of refraction. At air n=1,000292 and according to the formula (1), the factor of increase Г = 0,0006 is very small. On the basis of it has been drawn a conclusion, that the air environment of the Earth practically should not carry away an ether and thus there is a basic opportunity to define speed of movement of the Earth concerning an ether. Lead with this purpose Mickelson in 1881 experiment has given negative result. There was an inconsistent situation. According to experience of Phiso the ether takes a great interest in objects partially, according to Mickelsonís experience - completely.

           The result of experience of Phiso has been explained by partial carrying away of an ether for moving water, but as it is well possible to explain it, believing that the ether completely carrying away in water. The running wave transfers energy. At transition of waves from an ether in a objects in constant size the stream of energy is

                                                                           (2)

 

Where - density of kinetic energy of the particles in wave; C- velocity of the light on ether; С1 Ė velocity of the light in object; ρ- density of the ether; Vmax Ė maximum value of the amplitudeís velocity of the variable particles of the airwaves.

             Considering that in object space between atomic kernels and electrons is filled by ether, but volume occupied kernels and electrons very small oscillatory energy of the unit of the volume possible to present by expression

                   

 

Where ρт - density of the object; ρ1 - density of the object with residing ether in him; V1max - maximum amplitudeís velocity of the fluctuation of the particles in object.                            

 Substituting values of W and W1 in equation (2):

 

                 

 

Supposing that V and V1 accordingly proportional to С and С1 last equation possible to write down in the form of

                                                                               (3)

 

Whence density of the ether is:

                                                                                         (4)

 

Where n Ė factor of the refraction.

The atomic kernels and electrons are in a suspension in ether. Therefore experimentally measured density of objects it is caused only by kernels and electrons. Density of the ether is automatically excluded. For the formula (4) of values ρт undertook from reference books. In spite of significant differences of density of taken objects were got relatively stable values of density of the ether. Average density of the ether is r=1,08 g/sm3. When spreading the light in these objects amplitudeís velocities is really proportional to velocities of the spreading of waves. For fluid and gaseous objects correlation (4) is not executed. For them it can be written down in the form of

     

                                                                                                (5)

 

Now we shall install the dependency of velocity of the light in moving objects from velocity of their motion. If moving hard object completely leads away ether then for light, spreading in him possible to write equality

                                                                      (6)

 

Where СД Ė the velocity of the light in moving object rather motionless ether. Having equating right parts of the equations (3) and (6) find

                                                                                                                                                                         

                          

 

If V<<C1 that CД under root possible to change on C1 and then

                 

 

If for objects correlation (4) is not executed, that last equation for them will write in the form of

                                                                                           (7)

 

Computable on this fascination factor formula α is 0.438, but for air- 0.244. Thereby moving objects not partly but completely lead away the ether

Not struct analysis of the phenomenon of a star aberration has led to an erroneous conclusion about not carrying away an ether an air environment of the Earth. At not carried away ether at a forward wall of a telescope the shadow corner which size is equal should be formed

                       

 

Supposed that thereof the star will be displaced from an axis of a telescope and to keep it on an axis, the telescope needs to be inclined on this corner aside movements. But it contradicts laws of optics. The axis of a telescope should be directed is perpendicular to front of a wave of light. But in this case beams will gather in focus of an eyepiece. Displacement of front of wave during passage by light of distance from a diaphragm up to an eyepiece it is equal to shares of millimeter and what that of appreciable influence on the image cannot render. Influence of such displacement of front of a wave will be similar to influence of a deviation of an aperture of a diaphragm of a telescope from the correct geometrical form. Thereby the aberration by means of not carried away ether is not explained. From a position of a carried away ether the phenomenon of an aberration is explained as follows. Let the Earth moves with a speed in a direction specified by an arrow (pic.1). As can be seen from the scheme of vectors shown on a picture , velocity of a meeting of a ray of light with the Earth is equal to a geometric difference of speed of light and speed of the Earth.

           

 

At a=00, С1=С-V; at a=180С1=С+V, and at a=900 .

 

From a triangle formed by vectors we shall find a corner of an inclination of a beam С1 to the Earth.

       

 

 

At a = 00 and a = 1800, tgd = 0, and at a = 900  tgd = V/C.

The ray of light is always perpendicular to front of a wave. Change of a direction of a beam С1 owing to movement of the Earth simultaneously speaks about change of a direction of front of a falling wave

 

 

Pic.1 Star aberration.

To contemporaries of Mickelson the law of reflection of waves of moving mirrors was not known. The accepted settlement schemes have no strict substantiation that is have approximate character. To make exact calculations we had been deduced the general law of reflection and refraction of waves.

 

 

Pic.2 Settlement schemes of Mickelsonís experience.

At reflection of waves from a mirror which are being complex movement, the equation of group of secondary waves will enter the name in a following kind:

                

 

 

Pic.3 Reflection of a wave from anyway moving mirror.

Where x0, y0 и t0 Ė accordingly coordinates and time of a meeting of each beam with a mirror; x and y Ė coordinates of points of secondary waves at considering moment of time; t- time interval from the moment of radiation of waves till the moment of formation of the giving group.

The parametrical equations of the bending around giving group:

;     

       

             

Where ,  and Ė derived from x0, y0 and t0

The direction of the reflected beam is defined by a direction of a normal to front of the reflected wave.

 

                           

 

 

The law of reflection of waves from it is forward moving mirrors is a special case of the general law. Its conclusion can be made as follows. The mirror moving with a speed V during the moment of radiation of a wave is on distance S from a source. Each point of front of a wave will need a mirror through a time interval:

                           

 

The equation of group of secondary waves from all points of a mirror looks like

 

 

Given group the circle with coordinates of the center , and radius  is bending around

Pic.4 Reflection of spherical waves from a mirror moving forward.

Directions of the following and reflected beams are defined by normals accordingly to front falling and to front of  the reflected wave. The normal to front of a falling wave is expressed by the equation

And to front of the reflected wave by the equation

 

 

 

Dependence between a corner of reflection β and corner of falling α is expressed by the formula:

 

                                                            (8)

 

 

On pic.5 exact schemes of distribution of rays of light in Mickelsonís interpherometer are resulted, received by means of the law of reflection of waves from is forward moving mirrors.

                             

pic. 5 Schemes of beams in Mickelsonís interpherometer in view of the law of reflection of waves from moving mirrors.

 

Settlement schemes which were applied during carrying out of experience (pic.2), sharply differ from the schemes resulted on pic.5, but the expected effect according to both schemes approximately is identical. Thus, lead by Mickelson experiment with high degree proves to reliability, that the air environment of the Earth carries away an ether.

In Saniyakís experience rays of light are reflected from the mirrors which are being rotary movement. (pic. 6).  If the ether did not take a great interest in a rotating installation the greatest difference of a course at counter beams would be observed at their movement on a circle with radius R:

 

Where V- linear speed of points of installation on distance R from the center of rotation.

Actually observable difference of a course will well be coordinated with the formula (1):

 

                                                                                 (9)

 

Where w-angular speed of rotation of installation; S-the area limited by a circle with radius R. Thus, in experiment the optical effect of the first order is observed. According to the theory of not carried away ether rotation of installation causes optical effect of the second order.

Mickelsonís experience has shown, that the ether takes a great interest in moving objects. At first sight it seems, that at a carried away ether of a difference of a course of beams in Saniyakís  experience  should not be. Actually it not so. Light extended in rotary installation, informs oscillatory movements to particles of substance and an ether. Particles fluctuate in a plane, perpendicular to a direction of a ray of light. On them simultaneously operate centrifugal and Koriolis's forces. Centrifugal forces for speed of distribution of light do not render influence. Koriolis's forces inform to fluctuated particles acceleration in a direction, perpendicular to a direction of fluctuations of particles and the return to a direction of rotation of installation. Speed of light extending in a direction of rotation of installation, under action of Koriolis's forces decreases, and speed of light extending in a underside increases.

The object moving rectilinearly and in regular intervals on a rotating disk under action of Koriolis's forces receives acceleration [2].

              a = 2Vw.

Believing, that at distribution of light average peak speed fluctuated particles of an ether is equal

C/2, it is possible to write down

              a = Cw.

If installation did not rotate, a beam radiated from point A, would get to a point b1 but as the ether takes a great interest the trajectory of a beam concerning installation will pass on a piece a1b1. Delay of speed of light to equivalently increase in a way of a beam at size

 

            

 

Where t- time interval from the moment of an output of a beam from a point a till the moment of a meeting with mirror B in point B1; L-a way of a beam.

 

 

                              

 

                                  Pic.6 The Scheme of beams of Saniyakís experience

 

In a point b1 the ray of light, radiated as though not from a point а1, and from a point а2 will come. At detour of installation on all contour the way of a beam will increase for size

 

            

 

Where S-the area of a contour.

The difference of a course between counter beams will be equal

 

That coincides with the formula (9). Thus and Saniyakís experience proves, that the ether carried away by moving objects.

After opening by Newton of the law of universal gravitation there was an opportunity to solve problem about movement cooperating. In the beginning such problems were solved only in astronomy, and in 1913 the Bohr has successfully described electronís movement in atom of hydrogen. In planetary systems of a body move under action of the central forces. The problem about movement of a body in the central power floor not for all cases is solved in elementary functions. Existing formulas are complex and inconvenient at practical use. They do not consider the effect of movement caused by finiteness of speed of distribution of interaction, equal speed of light.  Newtonís and Kulonís laws are precisely carried out only for objects, motionless concerning an ether. Finiteness of speed of distribution of interaction the objects. For moving objects efficiency of interaction does not render influence on efficiency of interaction motionless depends on a parity between speed of light and speed of movement. Formulas of effect of movement are similar to formulas of Doplerís effect in optics and acoustics. For a case when both cooperating objects move, the formula of effect of movement looks like:

 

 

              а=а0,                                             (10)

 

 

Where а-the size depending on speed of movement of objects; _ and _ - corners between directions of movement of a source and the receiver and a line connecting a point from which the signal has been sent by a source, with a point in which it has been accepted by the receiver, V and U-speeds of movement of the receiver and a source. At counter movement of objects efficiency of interaction between them amplifies, and at removal from each other - is weakened.

The exact formulas considering effect of movement, are deduced by new original way. Laws of conservation of energy and the moment of quantity of movement are put in a basis of conclusions. Thus one more has been used new concept- integral of energy of system of two cooperating objects which can be expressed or through the sizes concerning a body m1 or through sizes, concerning to an object m2 (pic.7);

 

Рис.7 Trajectories of movement of cooperating objects

 

 

               ;                           (11)

 

Where V1-orbital speed of a object m1; r1 and l1- radius- vector and length of the big axis of an elliptic orbit of a object m1; V2, r2 and l2 -sizes for object m2; r = r1+r2 -distance between objects m1 and m2; m1= fm2;       m2= fm1, f  -a gravitational constant, β1=1+m1/m2; β2=1+m/m1.

The equations of orbits can be deduced from parities

 

         ;             ,

 

Where j1 and j2 - true anomalies of objects m1 and m2. Orbital speeds V1, V2  both their radial and tangential components Vr1, Vr2, Vt1 and Vt2, we find by means of integrals of energy (11). After integration in a general view it is received:

 

For an elliptic orbit                     or   

 

For a circular orbit           

 

For a parabolic orbit             or    ;

 

For a hyperbolic orbit          or   ,

 

Where rn and ra - pericentral and apocentrak radiuses; l - length of greater axes of an ellipse and a hyperbole.

 

At movement of a object on an orbit the effect of movement should be considered by means of the formula (10). In atom movement of a kernel can be neglected and then for the sizes describing electronís movement on a circular orbit, it is possible to write down in the form of:

 

            ;                                              (12)

 

Where a and b-sizes which values increase or decrease owing to effect of movement. Letters with strokes and without strokes designate the sizes received according to the account and without taking into account effect of movement.

Electronís speed in atom also depends on effect of movement. It is possible to write down

 

                                                                           (13)

Let's transform this formula

                                                                             (14)

We are convinced, that

                                                                   (15)

 

Formulas (12) allow to count with high accuracy not only parameters of circular orbits of electrons in atoms, but also parameters of circular orbits of planets and their satellites. At calculations it is necessary to use sizes both in view of and without taking into account effect of movement. By means of formulas (13) and (14) it is possible to pass easily from one sizes to another if one value of speed is known only: either V, or V í. In view of equality (15) formulas (12) it is possible to present in a following kind:

 

          ;          (16)

 

 

The stated theory is very simple, but allows to solve with high accuracy any problems in the nuclear physics. We shall show it in the beginning on an example of physical constants. Some constants which earlier have been certain experimentally, it is possible to calculate precisely under formulas. As initial data we shall take values of 4 constants [3]: speed of light m \with; an elementary charge ; weight of electron ; Bohrís radius . In table 1 the calculated and help values of constants are resulted for comparison.

                                                                      

                                                                                          Table 1

 

                                 Physical constants

Constant

 Calculation

Experiment

Ionization potential, eV

13,59829218

13,5285

Speed of electron ,m/s

2,186500611

-

Constant of thin structure 1/

137,0359895

137,0359895

Reedbergís Constant , м-1

1,097373153

1,097373153

Planck's constant , Дж×с

6,626075438

6,6260755

Cycle time of electron , с

1,520657574

-

 

 

Parameters of electronís orbit in atoms can be expressed through parameter of a Bohr orbit:

 

For circular orbit         ;                                (17)

 

For ellipse orbit   ;         .            (18)     

                            ;   

 

Where - excentricity of ellipse, Zí-effective charging number of a kernel, k-number of a stationary condition, n-orbital number. Index H we shall put at the sizes describing movement of electron on the first Bohr orbit. Full energy of system ę electron- atom Ľ E and a cycle time of electron around of kernel T are equal:

 

                Е=,              .                                    (19)      

 

For example we shall result calculation of parameters of electronís orbits in atom of helium at a finding external electron in the first and in the second stationary conditions [4].

That electron in atom of helium has reached an optical limit, it is required to spend the energy equal 198310, 76 or 39, Дж.

The power balance can be expressed the following equation:

 

                   =39,3933902×10-19 Дж

 

Where V/1 and V/2 speeds of electrons in internal and external orbits; V/1в - speed of electron in an internal orbit after removal external electron on last from possible orbits in atom of helium.

Having expressed speed of electrons through VН, last equation can be written down in the form of

 

                  =39,3933902∑10-19                                     (20)

 

 

The multielectronic atom will be steady only in the event that cycle times of electrons will be multiple to a cycle time of electron in the lowermost orbit. In atom gels the cycle time external электрона T2 in 2 times is more than cycle time of internal electron T1. The formula (19) allows to write down

           

                                                                 (21)

Having expressed z through z and having substituted values of other known sizes in the formula (20), we z= 1,391442257. Under formulas (17) and (21) it is found r = 0,380318565×10-10 м, V = 3,043551045×106м×с-1, z=1,967796512,  r =0,268925832×10-10 м,

V= 4,4231167×106 м×с-1

The attitude of a cycle time of external electron in the second stationary condition to a cycle time of electron in an internal orbit is equal

 

                                               (22)

 

Approximate value z can be defined under the formula

 

     

 

Where E-energy which is required for translation of external electron from not raised condition to raised.

Substituting in the formula (22) values z=1,2 и z=2, we find Х=22, .

Now the formula (20) can be written down in the form of

 

 

Where Е =38454,691 см-1 =7,63882226×10-19Дж.

 

Substituting in last equation known sizes, we find

z=1,204345354; z=1,997180828; V=1,31715367×106м×с-1; V=4,36850452×106м×с-1; r=1,75760656×10-10м; r=0,264969158×10-10м.

In table 2 key parameters of electronís orbits in atom of helium for two stationary conditions of external electron are resulted. On pic.8 are represented in scale of an electronís orbit and atom of helium.

 

                   

                                                                                                        Table 2

      Parameters of electronís orbits in atom of helium

Stationary condition

Type of an orbit and its number

Number of electron

Charging number of a kernel

Full energy

Cycle time

Тк/Т1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

 

Circular

1

2

1,96779651

1,39144226

84,39361119

42,19680582

0,39256973

0,78513946

2

 

1 circular

1

2

1,99718083

1,20434535

86,93286173

7,902989794

0,38110303

8,38426675

22

 

2 circular

1

2

1,99918961

1,08822099

87,10782517

6,452431524

0,38033756

10,26911405

27

 

3 circular

1

2

2,00012509

1,03286015

87,18936490

5,812624268

0,37998186

11,39945595

30

 

4 circular

1

2

2,00012736

1,03286133

87,18956281

5,812637549

0,37998100

11,39943004

30

 

5 circular

1

2

1,99965704

0,99982852

87,14856324

5,446785202

0,38015976

12,16511244

32

 

 

                                                            

 

                                    Pic.8 Orbits of electrons in atom of helium

 

Calculation of parameters of orbits of multielectronic atoms can be made, using values ionization potentials and spectra optical and X-rays. At radiation of waves by multielectronic atoms full energy not only at that electron which has made transition from one orbit on another, but also at all others electrons changes. For such atoms Bohrís formula looks like:

 

                 (23)

 

Where z/1, z/2, Ö, z/i, k1, k2, Ö.., ki - charging numbers and stationary conditions of electrons at not raised atom; z/1B, z/2B, Ö, z/iB, k1в, k2в, Ö, kiв - corresponding sizes at the raised atom.

The formula (23) is used for definition of lengths of the waves radiated by raised atoms. After some transformations it can be applied to calculation of parameters of electronís orbits complex atoms. Calculation is conducted in such sequence. In the beginning on values of the ionization potentials expressed in wave numbers, there are approximate values of effective charging numbers

      

 

Then frequency rates of cycle times of electrons under formulas are defined

 

          

 

 

Let's express by means of these formulas charging numbers of all electrons through charging number of external electrons. We shall substitute new expressions for charges in the formula (23). We shall receive the equation with one unknown persons

 

 

Now it is possible to define exact values z/2, z/3, Ö, z/i, solving consistently problems for the atoms having 2, 3, i electrons. As it is specified above, knowing value zí for electron, it is possible to define all parameters of its orbit. Parameters of orbits in not raised atoms of first twelve elements of the table of Mendeleyev are resulted in work [5].

For ions with identical number of electrons, but different charges of kernels carry out equality:

 

 

Where ЕН -ionization potential of atom of hydrogen, Еn+1, Еn и Еn-1 - ionization potentials of ions of three elements located by a number, n-a serial number of an element, k-number of a stationary condition of external electrons in ions. The given formula does not consider effect of movement. She can use only in cases when electrons in atoms move with small speeds. To make exact calculations, in view of effect of movement, it is necessary to know speeds of movement of electrons in atoms. Speed of electron without taking into account effect of movement can be calculated under the formula [6]

 

                                                  (24)

 

Ionization potential in view of effect of movement will be equal

 

                                                                          (25)

 

Last formula is received by means of integral of speed of system of two cooperating objects (11), but it can be deduced in another way.

The weight of electron is a constant, and its speed depends on effect of movement

 

                                                                             (26)

 

In view of it the force acting on electron in atom is equal

                                (27)

 

Energy of electron is equal to work accomplished above it an electric field of a kernel.

 

              

 

Having substituted instead of F and V í their values on (27) and (26), we find

              

 

 

Full energy of system ę electron- atom Ľ will be equal

 

              

 

(Coincides with the formula received earlier (25))

In work [6] values of ionization potentials for 36 elements calculated under formulas (24), (25) are resulted. Results of calculations will well be coordinated with experimental data. By a technique stated above, it is possible to calculate parameters of orbits for all 36 elements. No basic difficulties are present for calculation of ionization potentials and parameters of electronís orbits at all elements of a periodic table.

Chemical and a number of physical properties of elements are caused by energy of communication of external electrons with atoms. Energy of communication and consequently, and properties have periodic dependence of a serial number of an element in Mendeleyev's table. If to compare the first potentials of ionization at all atoms [7] it is possible to allocate precisely 7 periods, as it is reflected in Mendeleyev's table. If to compare potentials of ionization at all ions to different charges of kernels, but with identical quantity of electrons as it is precisely possible to distinguish at elements of 12 periods known to us which are resulted in table 3. In the table 13-th period for elements which it is possible also is resulted exist in the Universe in the conditions which are distinct from conditions of Solar system.

 

                                                                                                                  Table 3

The periodic law

The period

Number of an element in the period

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

I

H

He

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

 

 

 

 

 

 

III

Na

Mq

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

 

 

 

 

V

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

 

 

 

 

VII

Aq

Cd

Jn

Sn

Sb

Te

J

Xe

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIII

Cs

Ba

La

Cl

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Ду

Ho

Er

IX

Tm

Yb

Lu

Hf

Ta

W

Rl

Os

Jr

Pt

 

 

 

 

X

Au

Hq

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

 

 

 

 

 

 

XI

Fr

Ra

Ac

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

XII

Md

No

Lr

Ku

Ns

106

107

108

109

110

 

 

 

 

XIII

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In table 4 it is shown, how there is a filling electronic layers in atoms of elements of 13-th period, but on it it is possible to present, as there is a filling electronic layers in atoms of all other elements. The number of layers in atom corresponds to number of the period in which it is. The greatest possible number of electrons in a layer to equally number of elements in the period in which this layer is filled. In the first layer both electrons are in the first stationary condition. Eight electrons of the second layer are in the second stationary condition. Electrons the third and the fourth layers- in the third, and electrons of all other layers- in the fourth stationary condition.

 

                                                                                                                       Table 4

Distribution of electrons in atoms of 13-th period.

Number of the element

Number of the layer

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

k=1

k=2

k=3

k=4

111

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

1

112

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

2

113

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

3

114

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

4

115

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

5

116

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

6

117

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

7

118

2

8

8

10

8

10

8

14

10

8

14

10

8

 

 

One period contains two elements in the specified periodic table of elements. Six periods contain on 8 elements. Four periods- on 10 elements, and two periods- on 14 elements. In some periods identical law of change of properties of elements is observed at increase in number of electrons in an external layer of atom. Such periods we shall name similar. So the second and third periods beginning alkaline elements are similar; 5-th, 7-th, 10-th and 13-th which begin with elements of group of copper; 4-th, 6-th, 9-th, 12 contain on 10 elements; 8-th and 11-th contain on 14 elements.

For a particle, moving in the accelerator, the correct formula of kinetic energy can be deduced as follows. In process of increase in speed of a particle force from which the electric field on a particle operates, decreases and will be equal

 

             F= =.

 

 

Considering effect of movement, we find

 

               Ek=,                          (28)

 

Where x-the piece of the way which have been passed by the accelerated particle. At aspiration of speed of a particle to speed of light, kinetic energy of a particle will aspire to size mC^2/2, instead of to infinity as it follows from the formula (1).

 At creation of powerful accelerators of the charged particles, owing to application of the incorrect theory rather juicy situation was created. Cost of such accelerators is very great, and the effect of increase in energy of particles is insignificant, therefore construction of such accelerators is not meaningful. The accelerator in Serpukhov can disperse protons till the speed 0,999950C, and the accelerator in Batavia (state of Illinois, the USA) informs protons the speed equal 0,999998C [8]. If to use formulas of the theory of a relativity the Serpukhovís accelerator informs protons the energy equal 76 GeV, and Batavian - 500 GeV. According to our formula (28), in Serpukhovís accelerators protons get energy 469,089 MeV, and Batavian - 469,134 MeV. Thus in comparison with Serpukhov it is much more than expense for manufacturing and service of Batavian accelerator, and additional energy which is got with protons makes only 45 keV.

Thus, adhering to the uniform concept of knowledge of the world surrounding us, based on true Newtonís representation about space and time, we have created the theory, allowing to solve all problems which now are solved by means of modern physics. Calculations under our theory yield exact authentic results, and under the theory of modern physics - deformed, mismatching reality.

 

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